Thermal energy is the internal energy of an object. It is proportional to the sum of all the kinetic energy of each atom in the object. The more the atoms are moving, the more thermal energy there is. Also, the large an object is, the more thermal energy it will have.

The temperature of an object is proportional to the average kinetic energy of the individual atoms. Because it is an average, the size of the object doesn't matter, just the kinetic energy of the objects atoms.

When thermal energy moves from one place to another it is called heat. Convection is one way that heat can be transferred.

The heat specific heat of a material is a property of the material that tells you how much the temperature will change as you add heat to the material. Specific heat can be measured in a calorimeter.

The three laws of thermodynamics help explain how heat can do work, and how work can create heat.

Insulation is used to slow the transfer of heat.

Here is the R-value data and the solar power data for your Solar Heating project, as well as a sample spreadsheet for the project in different formats. OpenOffice Excel PDF